The lubricating effect of the cutting fluid during the cutting process can reduce the friction between the rake face and the chip, the flank face and the machined surface, forming a part of the lubricating film, thereby reducing the cutting force, friction and power consumption, and reducing the tool and the workpiece. The surface temperature of the friction part of the blank and the wear of the tool improve the cutting performance of the workpiece material. During the grinding process, after the grinding fluid is added, the grinding fluid penetrates into the grinding wheel-grinding material between the workpiece and the abrasive-grinding material, which reduces the friction between the interfaces and prevents the abrasive cutting edge from being worn and adhered. Chips, which reduce grinding force and friction heat, improve wheel durability and surface quality of the workpiece.
2) Cooling effect
The cooling effect of the cutting fluid is through the convection and vaporization between the tool (or grinding wheel), the chip and the workpiece that is heated by cutting.
By taking the cutting heat away from the tool and the workpiece, the cutting temperature is effectively reduced, the thermal deformation of the workpiece and the tool is reduced, the tool hardness is maintained, and the machining accuracy and tool durability are improved. The cooling performance of the cutting fluid is related to its thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat of vaporization, and viscosity (or fluidity). The thermal conductivity and specific heat of water are higher than oil, so the cooling performance of water is better than oil.
3) Cleaning effect
In the metal cutting process, the cutting fluid is required to have a good cleaning effect. Removes chips, abrasive chips, and iron powder, oil, and grit to prevent contamination of machine tools, workpieces, and tools, so that the cutting edge of the tool or grinding wheel remains sharp and does not affect the cutting effect. For oil-based cutting oils, the lower the viscosity, the stronger the cleaning ability, especially for cutting oils containing light components such as kerosene and diesel, the better the permeability and cleaning performance. A water-based cutting fluid containing a surfactant has a better cleaning effect because it forms an adsorption film on the surface, preventing particles and sludge from adhering to the workpiece, the cutter and the grinding wheel, and it can penetrate into the particle and the sludge. On the interface, separate it from the interface and take it away with the cutting fluid to keep the cutting fluid clean.
4) Anti-rust effect
During the metal cutting process, the workpiece is corroded by contact with corrosive media such as sludge generated by decomposition or oxidative deterioration of the environmental medium and the cutting fluid component, and the surface of the machine tool component in contact with the cutting fluid is corroded. In addition, when the workpiece is temporarily stored during or after the processing of the workpiece, the cutting fluid is also required to have a certain rust preventing ability, thereby preventing corrosive substances such as sludge in the environmental medium and the residual cutting fluid from corroding the metal. Especially in the humid and rainy seasons in southern China, we should pay more attention to the anti-rust measures between processes.
5) Other effects
In addition to the above four functions, the cutting fluid used should have good stability, and does not cause precipitation or delamination, oil deposition, soaping and aging during storage and use. It has certain resistance to bacteria and molds, and is not prone to mildew and biodegradation, resulting in odor and deterioration. Does not damage the painted parts, no harm to the human body, no irritating smell. Smokeless, foggy or less smoke during use. It is easy to recycle, low-pollution, and the discharged waste liquid is easy to handle. After treatment, it can meet the national industrial wastewater discharge standards.